Ovid Technologies Field Guide

EMBASE: Excerpta Medica (EMEZ, EMED, EMEB)

The EMBASE database is a member of the Ovid EMBASE family that consists of three separate databases: Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), EMBASE Drugs and Pharmacology (EMDP), and EMBASE Psychiatry (EMPS). Formally, EMDP and EMPS are considered to be subsets of EMBASE. This field guide, although very similar in content to those of EMDP and EMPS, provides scope of information specific to the EMBASE database.


The Excerpta Medica database (EMBASE) produced by Elsevier Science, is a major biomedical and pharmaceutical database indexing over 3,500 international journals in the following fields: drug research, pharmacology, pharmaceutics, toxicology, clinical and experimental human medicine, health policy and management, public health, occupational health, environmental health, drug dependence and abuse, psychiatry, forensic medicine, and biomedical engineering/instrumentation. There is selective coverage for nursing, dentistry, veterinary medicine, psychology, and alternative medicine. EMBASE is one of the most widely used biomedical and pharmaceutical databases because of its currency and in-depth indexing. Frequent updates allow access to the latest medical and pharmacological trends. Approximately 375,000 records are added yearly.

General Information

Elsevier Science B.V.
Secondary Publishing Division
Molenwerf 1
1014 AG Amsterdam
The Netherlands
+31-20-4853222 (fax)
Email: embase-europe@elsevier.nl
Website: http://www.elsevier.nl

Elsevier Science
Secondary Publishing Division
245 West 17th Street
New York, NY 10011 USA
(800) 457-3633
(212) 633-3980
(212) 633-3975 (fax)
Email: usembase-f@elsevier.com

Elsevier Science Japan
Secondary Publishing Division
9-15 Higashi-Azabu 1-chome
Minato-ku Tokyo 106 Japan
+81-3-55615047 (fax)

Years of Coverage
EMEZ: 1980 - Present (Entire Database)
EMED: 1988 - Present
EMEB: 1980 - 1987

Default Fields for Unqualified Searches

All Display/Print Fields

Default Display/Print Fields

Elements of SO (Source) Field

Online Update Frequency

Local Update Frequency

Searching the EMBASE fields

The following alphabetical list provides the two-letter label, the relevant alias, and an example for each EMBASE field.

=====        ============
Label        Name/Example
=====        ============
AB           Abstract [Word Indexed]
             mitral valve prolapse.ab.

EMBASE include author-written abstracts when they are available.
Approximately 60% of the citations in EMBASE include abstracts.
Beginning in 1997, the number of references appears at the end of the

AF           All Searchable Fields
             drug abuse.af.

All Fields (AF) is an alias for all of the fields which occur in the
source documents, including value-added fields such as Subject Headings.
The only thing excluded from an All Fields search are fields such as
"floating subheading" or "Heading word" which are created by the loading
process and do not actually appear in the record.

AN, UI       Accession Number [Phrase Indexed]

The Accession Number (AN) field contains a ten-digit number assigned
in EMBASE to uniquely identify a particular record.

AU           Author [Phrase Indexed]
             smith $.au.

The Author (AU) field contains up to 100 authors in the format of   
last name and one or more initials. If a single initial could not 
be transliterated with one letter, two or more letters may be used.  
Occasionally a name will include the full first name.

If there are more than 100 authors, only 99 are listed, followed by
the indication "et al."

CD           Journal CODEN [Phrase Indexed]

The Coden (CD) field contains a journal CODEN.  CODENS are 5-digit codes
such as "AJDCA" which uniquely identify a journal title.

CF           Conference Information [Word Indexed]

The Conference Information (CF) field contains supplementary information
about a conference such as its location.  Conference information usually
is displayed as part of the source.

Individual words are indexed in the CF field; enter a single descriptive
word such as "japan".

CP           Country of Publication [Phrase Indexed]

The Country of Publication (CP) field contains the full name of the
country in which a journal was published. The Country of Publication
appears as part of the Source (SO), but can also be displayed
separately. The country name is entered into the index as a phrase.

DV		Device Trade Name [Word Indexed]
		Ultrasound Biomicroscope.dv.
DM		Device Manufacturer [Phrase Indexed]
		Humphrey Instruments.dm.

The Device Trade Name (DV) field contains the medical device trade names 
assigned to the records.  The Device Manufacturer (DM) field contains the 
device manufacturer name associated with the Device Trade Name.  These 
fields display together in the citation.

DP           Date of Publication [display only]

The Date of Publication (DP) field contains the month, year, and 
possibly day that the journal was published.

Note: Only weekly journals, such as The Lancet display a 
Date of Publication.

EC		Embase Section Headings [Phrase Indexed]
		arthritis and rheumatism.ec.

The Embase Section Headings (EC) field contains both the section 
assignment numbers and headings that correspond to the Excerpta
Medica Abstract Journals and Literature Indexes.

There are fifty-two codes indexed as three digits (001 through 052).  
To search this field, enter the desired code or the desired heading.

EM, UP, IM, ND, IR, EW     Entry Week [Phrase Indexed]

The Entry Week (EM) field contains the date (year and week) in which
a document was added to EMBASE.

FS           Floating Subheading [Phrase Indexed]

Subheadings, or "link terms" are qualifiers added to EMTREE subject
headings to refine their meaning.  Terms such as "adverse drug reaction"
or "drug toxicity", when combined with an EMTREE term, give a very
precise idea of what an article covers.

The Floating Subheadings (FS) field contains the 2-letter link terms,
such as "AN" for drug analysis.

HW, ME       Heading Word [Word Indexed]

Sometimes you may wish to retrieve every EMTREE subject heading that
includes a particular word; this is done by searching the single word in
the Subject Heading Word (HW) field.

IB           ISBN [Phrase Indexed]

The ISBN (IB) field contains the International Standard Book Number (ISBN)
for a book or monographic publication.

IN           Institution [Word Indexed]

The Institution (IN) field contains the primary author's affiliation,
which is usually the source for a reprint of the article.

This information is not standardized and often contains abbreviations.
Enter the single most descriptive word in an institution (harvard, not
university). Consider both full spellings and abbreviations.

Beginning in 1997, the primary author's e-mail address will be included
when provided in the original source material.

IS           ISSN [Phrase Indexed]

The ISSN (IS) field contains the International Standard Serial Number
(ISSN) for the journal in which an article was published.

JN, JT       Journal Name [Phrase Indexed]

The Journal Name (JN) field contains the full name of the journal in which
an article was published.

Journal names are indexed as phrases; enter enough letters of the
journal name to locate the name in the index, e.g. "new engl" (for New
England Journal of Medicine).

Stopwords such as "of" ARE included in the JN index, but when "the" is
the first word of a journal, it has been stripped.

JW           Journal Word [Word Indexed]
             internal medicine.jw.

The Journal Word (JW) field contains individual words from every
journal name in EMBASE.

Stopwords such as "the" or "of" are not included.  This field is used to
retrieve every occurrence of a journal which includes a particular word,
such as "pharmacology."

LG, LA       Language [Phrase Indexed]

The Language (LG) field contains the language(s) of publication of an
article.  The language name will appear in the index as a 3-letter code
(such as fre for french) or as the full language name.  The codes are 
usually, but not always, the first three letters of the language name.

For a spelled-out list of languages, refer to the Limit/Languages
Pulldown menu.

MF           Drug Manufacturer Name [Phrase Indexed]

The Drug Manufacturer Name (MF) field contains the full name of the
manufacturer of a drug or device discussed in an article.  Manufacturer 
names are listed in their brief form, for example, "Lilly" for "Eli 
Lilly."  Enter the first few letters of a manufacturer name and you 
will be shown the index of names beginning with those letters.

MS           Molecular Source Number [Word Indexed]

The Molecular Sequence Number (MS) field contains an acronym for 
a source of molecular sequence data and a sequence accession number 
documented by the source.  Each acronym is preceded by a weighting 
of A or B in parentheses.  The weighting of A is assigned to the 
sequence numbers whose submission to a molecular sequence database 
is announced in the document indexed.  The weighting of B is 
assigned to sequence numbers, which are referred to, but not 
submitted by the document.

To search this field, enter the sequence accession number.  The 
search can be combined with the source and the weighting.  For 
example, one could enter D44600.ms. and A.ms. to retrieve items 
where D44600 is announced in the indexed document.

The field displays in the citations as follows:

(B)Genebank: D44600; (A)EMBL: X1614; (B)SWISSPROT: P25808.

OT, TT       Original Title [Word Indexed]

The Original Title (OT) field contains all non-English titles in the
original language.  If the original title was in a non-Roman alphabet,
then the OT is transliterated.

Omit common articles when searching a foreign language:  heure
not l'heure.

PB           Publisher [Word Indexed]

The Publisher (PB) field includes the publisher name for a book or other
non-journal publication.  Enter the most distinctive part of a name to
locate a publisher, for example: "elsevier".

This field is usually displayed as part of the Source (SO) field.

PT           Publication Type [Phrase Indexed]
             conference paper.pt.

The Publication Type (PT) field contains one of the following forms of 
literature indexed: Article, Book, Conference Paper, Conference Proceeding, 
Editorial, Erratum, Journal, Letter, Note, Review, Report, or Short Survey.  In 
addition, information is provided about the item type of the original document.  
The item type information is utilized from 1991 forward.  Also, citations indicate 
if the original document was an article conference paper, editorial, erratum, letter, 
note, review, or short survey.  To search the PT field, enter the appropriate search 
term, such as short survey.pt.

RN           Registry Number [Phrase Indexed]

The Registry Number (RN) field contains the Chemical Abstracts Service
Registry number for a compound mentioned in an article.

Registry numbers appear and are searched with hyphens (50-07-0).

SD           Source Description [Word Indexed]

The Source Description (SD) field contains the volume/issue/part and
pagination of a journal.  The SD field usually display as part of the
Source (SO) field.

The SD field is used to supplement the journal name or title when a
particular citation is sought.  Enter a single volume/issue or page
number and combine it with searches on other elements of the citation.

SH, DE, CT, SW    Subject Headings [Phrase Indexed]
                  cd4 antigen.sh.
                  *cd4 antigen/

The Subject Heading (SH) field contains the EMTREE Thesaurus terms used
by EMBASE indexers to describe the content of an article.

EMTREE terms are organized in a hierarchy, or "tree" structure.

EMTREE terms are entered into the index as phrases and should be
searched as they appear in the published EMTREE or in our Tree display.
All EMTREE terms and associated terms are indexed in the SH field.

SL           Summary Language [Phrase Indexed]

The Summary Language (SL) field contains the language(s) of the 
summaries (up to three languages) printed in the original document.  

The summary language name appears in the index as a 3-letter 
code (such as fre ) or as the full language name (french).  Often, 
the codes are the first three letters of the summary language name.

SO           Source (JN, PB, SD, YR, CF)

The Source (SO) field includes a display of all the basic information
needed to locate a citation, including the Journal Name or Monograph
Publisher, the Vol/Issue, pagination, year of publication and Conference
Name or Report Number if applicable.

TI           Title [Word Indexed]
             down's syndrome.ti.

The Title (TI) field contains the English language version of a title.
For documents which are not written in English, the original or
transliterated title appears in a separate field, Original Title.

The title sometimes includes notes about the article such as an
indication of language.

TN           Drug Trade Name [Phrase Indexed]

The Drug Trade Name and Manufacturer (TN) field contains both the trade name
and manufacturer for a drug or device discussed in an article.

TW           Textword (AB, TI, TN)
             mitral valve prolapse.tw.

The Textword (TW) field is an alias for all of the fields in a database
which contain text words and which are appropriate for a subject search.

The Textword field in EMBASE includes Title (TI) and Abstract (AB).

YR           Year of Publication [Phrase Indexed]

The Year (YR) field contains the year in which an article or monograph
was published.  The year must be searched as a single 4-digit number.


The following limits are available from the Limit menu on the Main Search Screen:

Popular Command and Sentence Syntax Limits:

Command Syntax:        ..l/ ab=y
Sentence Syntax:       limit 1 to abstracts

English Language
Command Syntax:        ..l/1 en=y
Sentence Syntax:       limit 1 to english

Experimental Subjects
Sentence Syntax:       limit 1 to amphibia
Sentence Syntax:       limit 1 to higher plant
Sentence Syntax:       limit 1 to microorganism

Sentence Syntax:       limit 1 to female

Command Syntax:        ..l/1 hu=y
Sentence Syntax:       limit 1 to human

Human Age Group
Sentence Syntax:       limit 1 to infant

Command Syntax:        ..l/1 lg=fre
Sentence Syntax:       limit 1 to french

Latest Update
Command Syntax:        ..l/1 up=y
Sentence Syntax:       limit 1 to update

Sentence Syntax:       limit 1 to male

Priority Journals
Sentence Syntax:       limit 1 to priority
Sentence Syntax:       limit 1 to priority journals

Publication Year
Command Syntax:        ..l/1 yr=1996
Command Syntax:        ..l/1 yr 1992-1993
Sentence Syntax:       limit 1 to yr=1996

Publication Types
Sentence Syntax:       limit 1 to review
Sentence Syntax:       limit 1 to article

Routes of Drug Administration
Sentence Syntax:       limit 1 to intraarterial

Change to EMBASE From Another Database

Sample EMBASE Documents

Accession Number
  Einarson A.  Ho E.  Koren G.
  A. Einarson, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ont.; Canada.
Country of Publication
  Can we use metronidazole during pregnancy and breastfeeding? Putting an
  end to the controversy.
  Canadian Family Physician. Vol 46(MAY) (pp 1053-1054), 2000.
Subject Headings
  *Breast Feeding
  Giardiasis/dt [Drug Therapy]
  Drug Safety
  Blood Placenta Barrier
  Birth Defect
  Drug Excretion
  Case Report
  Short Survey
  *Metronidazole/dt [Drug Therapy]
  *Metronidazole/pk [Pharmacokinetics]
  *Breast Milk/ec [Endogenous Compound]
  Question: Two of my patients have been diagnosed with giardiasis, and I
  would like to treat them with the drug of choice for this infection,
  metronidazole (Flagyl(TM)). One of them is 6 weeks pregnant and the other
  is breastfeeding a 2-month-old infant, and I have received conflicting
  information about the safety of this drug during pregnancy and
  breastfeeding. What should I do? Answer: Although metronidazole has been
  on the market for almost 40 years, its use remains controversial during
  pregnancy and breastfeeding. Recent evidence has shown, however, that this
  drug is not associated with adverse effects during either pregnancy or
  breastfeeding.  [References: 10]
Trade Names and Manufacturers
CAS Registry Numbers
  39322-38-8, 443-48-1 (metronidazole)
Summary Language
  English, French
Publication Type
  Journal: Short Survey
Entry Week
Embase Classification
  007, 010, 037  

EMBASE Copyright Information

The databases created by Exerpta Medica are copyrighted by Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. No part of the databases may be copied in machine readable, hard copy or any other form, or made available for the use of any third party without permission of the copyright owner. Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. requires that the user signs a downloading agreement with ESP before the actual downloading takes place. This agreement will be sent to you after contacting one of the Exerpta Medica Marketing offices. Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. represents that EMBASE and EMBASE backfiles, and EMBASE subfiles were formulated with a reasonable standard of care and in conformance to professional standards in the field. Except with respect to the foregoing and as otherwise specifically provided in the agreement, Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., makes no representations or warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose, with respect to such databases and specifically disclaims all such warranties and representations. Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. also disclaims any legal liability or responsibility for any damages or loss, direct or indirect, sustained by the user of this database.

Revised 16 January 2001